CRYSTALLIZATION LÀ GÌ

     
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Crystallization, or crystallisation, is the process of atoms or molecules arranging into a well-defined, rigid crystal lattice in order lớn minimize their energetic state. The smallest entity of crystal lattice is called a unit cell, which can accept atoms or molecules to grow a macroscopic crystal. During crystallization, atoms & molecules bind together with well-defined angles to size a characteristic crystal shape with smooth surfaces và facets. Although crystallization can occur in nature, crystallization also has a broad industrial application as a separation and purification step in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.Bạn đã xem: Crystallization là gì


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The choice of operating conditions during a crystallization process directly influences important product attributes such as crystal size, crystal shape & purity. By understanding the crystallization process and choosing the right process parameters, it is possible to lớn repeatedly produce crystals of the correct size, shape, và purity while minimizing downstream processing issues, such as long filtration times or inadequate drying.

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Why is Crystallization Important?

Crystallization touches every aspect of our lives from the foods we eat và the medicines we take, to lớn the fuels we use to lớn power our communities. The majority of agrochemical and pharmaceutical products go through many crystallization steps during their development and manufacture. Key food ingredients, such as lactose & lysine, are manufactured using crystallization và the unwanted crystallization of gas hydrates in deep sea pipelines is a major safety concern for the petrochemical industry.

Key Crystallization Definitions

Crystallization Crystallization is a process whereby solid crystals are formed from another phase, typically a liquid solution or melt.

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Precipitation Precipitation is the process of generating solid from the solution caused by supersaturation when the concentration of the solute is higher than its solubility. This term is usually interchangeable with "crystallization", but differs in that it can also indicate the formation of amorphous (non-crystalline) solid.

Solubility Solubility is a measure of the amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent at a given temperature

Saturated Solution At a given temperature, there is a maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in the solvent. At this point the solution is saturated. The quantity of solute dissolved at this point is the solubility.

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Choose an appropriate solvent. Common considerations included how much solute can be dissolved (solubility) and how practical the solvent is to handle (safety)Dissolve the product in the solvent by increasing the temperature until all solids of the hàng hóa are dissolved. At this moment, insoluble impurities may be filtered from the hot solutionReduce solubility via cooling, anti-solvent addition, evaporation or reaction. The solution will become supersaturated.Crystallize the product. As solubility is reduced, a point is reached where crystals will nucleate & then grow. Highly pure product crystals should form and impurities should remain in solution.Allow the system khổng lồ reach equilibrium to maximize the yield of sản phẩm solid.Filter & dry the purified product.